Glaucoma refers to a group of disorders that lead to damage to the optic nerve, due to the increased fluid pressure in the eye. The optic nerve carries visual information from the eye to the brain .Damage to the optic nerve causes vision loss.
TYPES: there are 4 types of glaucoma-
1- Open angle or chronic glaucoma
2- Close angle or acute glaucoma
3- Congenital glaucoma
4- Secondary glaucoma
ETIOLOGY AND RISK FACTOR – Family history of glaucoma ,older age, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, migraine, myopia, eye trauma, prolong use of corticosteroids
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY- Due to the etiology and risk factors (emotional stress , illness, long term corticosteroids)
Turns structural alterations in the aqueous outflow system
It leads to functional alteration condition such as increased intra ocular pressure
Than due to the alteration of the function ,the optic nerve damage
When the arophy of an optic nerve
1 chronic or open angle glaucoma
Mildly aching eyes
2 close or acute angle glaucoma
Severe eye pain
Red eye deceased or cloudy visin
Swelling of the eye
Pupil doesn’t react to light
Nausea and vomiting
3 congenital glaucoma
Sensitivity to light
Enlarge ment of one eye or baoth eye
Cloudyness of the front of the eye
DIAGNOSTIC TEST –
1 Tonometry- this test is used to measures the intra ocular pressure.
Normal intra ocular pressure ranges from 10 to 21 mmhg.
2 slit lamp examination –this test is used for see the effect of glaucoma on the anterior eye structure including the cornea , iris, and lens.
3 opthalamoscopy – this test is for facilitates visualization of fundus.
Epinephrine , mannitol(osmotic diuretic) , isosorbide (to reduce the effect of blood glucose level)
SURGICAL MANAGE MENT-
RISK FOR BLINDNESS FROM EXTREMELY HIGH INTRA OCCULAR PRESSURE CAN BE ADDERESSED AS A COLLABORATIVE PROBLEMS.
RISK FOR INEFFECTIVE THERAPEUTIC REGIMEN MANAGEMENT RELATED TO COMPLEX MEDICATION SHEDULE.
ANXIETY RELATED TO FEAR OF BLIND NESS NAD HOSPITALIZATION.
PAIN REALATED TO SURGERY.
NUTRITION DEFICIENCY RELATED TO SURGERY.
Increased intra occular pressure,
Optic nerve damage,
Open angle glaucoma(chronic),
Close angle glaucoma(acute),
Management (medical and nursing),