INTRODCATION:-The umbilical cord or Funnies extend from the fetus to the placenta & transmit the umbilical cord vessels which are two arteries & one vein. These are enclosed& protected by gelatinous substance which known as Wharton’ Jelly which form from the mesoderm.
Structure of umbilical cord:-
(1) Covering Epithelium:- It is lined by a single layer of amniotic membrane or amniotic epithelium.
(2) Wharton s jelly :-It consist of elongated cells in a gelatinous substance , it has got protected function to the umbilical cord .
(3) Blood vessels :- Initially there are four vessels–Two veins
The arteries are derived from the internal iliac arteries of the fetus & carry the venous blood from the fetus to the placenta . The two umbilical veins, the right one is disapper by the four month of pregnancy. Leaving behind one vein which carries blood from the placenta to the fetus .
Characteristics:- It is about 50 cm in length with an usual variation 30-100 cm with variation of 1-2.5 cm . It shows a spiral twist from the left & right from as early as 12 weeks due to spiral turn taken by the vessels , vein around the arteries.
Anatomical variations of the umbilical cord:-
(1) Succenturiate lobe of placenta:- A small extra lobe is present , separate from the main placenta & join to it by blood vessels that run through the membrane to reach it. The danger is that this small lobe may be retain in uterus after the placenta is delivered or born . If it is not remove , it may leave to infection & hemorrhage. The nurse must examine every placenta for identify of a retain lobe of placenta in uterus.
(2) Circumvallates placenta
(3) Battledore insertion of the cord
(4) Velamentius insertion of the cord
(5) Bipartile placenta
(6) Tripartile placenta