DEFINITION: Pancreatitis is the inflammation of pancreas.
TYPES: Pancreatitis is divided into two types:
CAUSES: – Long term use of alcohol
-Bacterial or viral infection
-Auto immune problems
– Gall stones
– Injuries to the pancreas
Due to the above causes
Self digestion of pancreas by its own proteolitic enzyme
Gall stone enter the common bile duct
Obstructing the flow of pancreatic juice
Activating the powerful enzyme within the pancreas
Leads to vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, necrosis, erosion Pancreatitis
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
• Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever
• Weight loss
• Respiratory distress
• Computed tomography
• Magnetic resonance imaging
ERCP(Endoscopic retrograde choliangio pancreatography)
An acute attack of pancreatitis usually lasts a few days. An acute attack of pancreatitis caused by gallstones may require removal of the gallbladder or surgery of the bile duct. After the gallstones are removed and the inflammation goes away, the pancreas usually returns to normal.
Treatment for chronic pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis can be difficult to treat. Doctors will try to relieve the patient’s pain and improve the nutrition problems. Patients are generally given pancreatic enzymes and may need insulin. A low-fat diet may also help.
Surgery may be done in some cases to help relieve abdominal pain, restore drainage of pancreatic enzymes or hormones, treat chronic pancreatitis caused by blockage of the pancreatic duct, or reduce the frequency of attacks.
Patients must stop smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages, follow their doctor’s and dietitians dietary advice.
Maintain fluid volume and prevent renal failure.
Early complications include shock, infection, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, low blood calcium, high blood glucose, and dehydration. Blood loss, dehydration, and fluid leaking into the abdominal cavity (ascites) can lead to kidney failure. Respiratory complications are often severe. Pleural effusion is usually present. Shallow breathing from pain can lead to lung collapse.