INTRODUCTION- Acanthosis Nigerians is a brown to black; it is used when word is used repeatedly poorly defined, velvety hyper pigmentation of the skin. It is usually found in body folds, such as the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the armpits, groin, navel, forehead, and other areas.
CLASSIFICATION- Acanthosis Nigerians is conventionally divided into benign and malignant forms, although may be divided into syndromes according to cause:
• Benign This may include obesity-related, hereditary, and endocrine forms of acanthuses Nigerians.
• Malignant. This may include forms that are associated with tumor products and insulin-like activity, or tumor necrosis factor.
An alternate classification system still used to describe acanthuses Nigerians was proposed in 1994. It delineates acanthuses Nigerians syndromes according to their associated syndromes, including benign and malignant forms, forms associated with obesity and drugs, aural acanthuses Nigerians, unilateral acanthuses Nigerians, and mixed and syndrome forms.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS- Acanthosis Nigerians may present with thickened, velvety, relatively darker areas of skin on the neck, armpit and in skin folds.
CAUSES- It typically occurs in individuals younger than age 40, may be genetically inherited, and is associated with obesity or endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism, acromegaly, polycystic ovary disease, insulin-resistant diabetes, or Cushing’s disease.
DIAGNOSIS- Acanthosis Nigerians is typically diagnosed clinically. A skin biopsy may be needed in unusual cases. If no clear cause is obvious, it may be necessary to search for one. Blood tests, an endoscopy, or X-rays may be required to eliminate the possibility of diabetes or cancer as the cause.
On biopsy, hyperkeratosis, epidermal folding, leukocyte infiltration, and melanocyte proliferation may be seen.
TREATMENT- People with acanthuses Nigerians should be screened for diabetes and, although rare, cancer. Controlling blood glucose levels through exercise and diet often improves symptoms. Topical fade creams (normally used for eliminating age spots) can lighten skin cosmetically in less severe cases. Acanthosis Nigerians malign may resolve if the causative tumor is successfully removed.
Introduction, Classification, Signs and symptoms of ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS
Author: NARESH KUMAR DADHICH