INTRODUCTION – Renal failure or renal insufficiency is a medical condition in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter waste products from the blood. The two main forms are acute kidney injury, which is often reversible with adequate treatment, and chronic kidney disease, which is often not reversible.
Kidney failure can be divided into two categories: acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease. The type of renal failure is differentiated by the trend in the serum creatinine; other factors that may help differentiate acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease include anemia and the kidney size on sonography as chronic kidney disease generally leads to anemia and small kidney size.
Acute kidney injury – Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is a rapidly progressive loss of renal function, generally characterized by oliguria (decreased urine production, quantified as less than 400 mL per day in adults less than 0.5 mL/kg/h in children or less than 1 mL/kg/h in infants); and fluid and electrolyte imbalance.
Chronic kidney disease –
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can also develop slowly and, initially, show few symptoms. CKD can be the long term consequence of irreversible acute disease or part of a disease progression.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –
Symptoms of kidney failure include the following –
• High levels of urea in the blood, which can result in:
o Vomiting and/or diarrhea, which may lead to dehydration
o Weight loss
o Nocturnal urination
o More frequent urination, or in greater amounts than usual, with pale urine
o Less frequent urination, or in smaller amounts than usual, with dark coloured
o Blood in the urine
o Pressure, or difficulty urinating
o Unusual amounts of urination, usually in large quantities
o Pain in the back or side
1. Nutritional Therapy
2. Pharmacological Therapy
3. Maintain Intake output chart
4. Administer Antibiotics
5. Administer Diuretics