A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the rapid loss of brain function due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood flow) caused by blockage (thrombosis, embolism, spasm), or a hemorrhage.
As a result, the affected area of the brain cannot function, which might result in an inability to move one or more limbs on one side of the body, inability to understand or formulate speech, or an inability to see one side of the visual field.
CAUSES OF STROKE: A stroke usually caused by-
1. Thrombosis :- Thrombosis is the most common cause of stroke and is usually due to atherosclerosis.
2. Embolism :- The occlusion of a cerebral artery by an embolus cause an embolic stroke. An embolus forms outside the brain which travals through the cerebral circulation until it occludes a cerebral artery.
3. Ischemia :- Cerebral ischemia is occur when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupated or totally occluded.
4. Intra cerebral Hemorrhage :- Intracerebral Hemorrhage results from the rupture of a cerebral vessel which causes bleeding into brain tissue.
5. Spasm :- Cerebral arterial spasm, due to some irritation which reduces blood flow to the area of brain, supplied by the constricted vessel.
• Cardiovascular disease
• Elevated hematocrit increase the risk of cerebral infarction
• Diabetes mellitus
• Smoking, Alcohol consumption
• Drug abuse
• Emotional stress
TYPES OF CVA/STROKE-
Stroke can be classified in to two major categories:
1. Ischemic stroke
2. Hemorrhagic stroke
3. Transient ischaemic attack
1. ISCHEMIC STROKE-An ischemic stroke or brain attack is a sudden loss of function due to inadequate blood flow to the brain from partial or complete occlusion of an artery.
2. HEMORRHAGIC STROKE:Hemorrhagic stroke account for about 15% of all strokes and In this Bleeding is occurs into the brain tissue (intra-cerebral hemorrhage) or the subarachnoid space (subarachnoid hemorrhage).
3. TRANSIENT ISCHAEMIC ATTACK:-It is a sign that part of the brain is not getting enough blood, and there is a risk of a more serious stroke in future. As with major strokes, you must seek medical attention immediately
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS:
Confusion or changes in the mental status.
Loss of balance or coordination
Motor loss or dysfunction
Memory and judgement may be impaired
Decreased tolerance to stressful situation
Numbness and tingling of extremity
Brain CT scan – to determine cause and location of stroke.
• Brain injury
• Deep vein thrombus
• Muscular spasticity